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Shuttle Astronauts and their Seat Belts


Astronauts also wear seat belts, and need help strapping in.
Astronauts climbing into a space shuttle are typically thinking about lots of things. From trajectories and abort scenarios to systems and when to talk to the launch team and mission controllers. Not to mention the pure excitement that comes with getting ready to go into orbit.
They might not be thinking so much about strapping themselves into the seats on the shuttle.
“You’ve got your mind on a lot of stuff when you’re getting into the shuttle and getting ready to launch into space,” said astronaut Stan Love. He’s a mission specialist on the STS-122 mission. ” And hooking up connections isn’t always top of your priority list.”
That’s why the crew gets help from other astronauts who get into the shuttle with them but have no intention of flying that day. Those astronauts are known formally as Astronaut Support Personnel, but they go by several names, including ASPs, Cape Crusaders. This is because they are assigned to NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, or just C-squareds.
Chris Hadfield, a Canadian astronaut who flew on STS-74 and STS-100, worked as an ASP before his first flight. He credits the experience with teaching him the details of launch day.
“Working at the Cape as a Cape Crusader, C-squared, whatever you want to call it,” Hadfield said, “I learned so much about how the vehicles get ready, about the attitude at KSC, and about what it is to be one of the crew members getting in and out of the vehicle.”
It’s not as easy as putting on a seat belt, after all. For one thing, on launch day the shuttle’s nose is pointed skyward. The crew really does have to climb into their seats because they are tilted 90 degrees. Getting in place means wriggling in on their backs and lifting their legs over their heads.
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Driving the Scenic Overseas Highway

Driving the Scenic Overseas Highway

The Overseas Highway is one of the most beautiful scenic drives in America. This highway is the southernmost leg of U.S. 1. It is where the visitors from Florida’s mainland can cross countless coral and limestone islets through that special world of the Florida Keys. It’s one of the most scenic drives in the world, and don’t forget to wear your seat belt.
It’s mostly over water, allowing you to enjoy the beautiful scenery and the ocean and of course, the incredible sunrises and sunsets depending on when you’re driving.
This asphalted highway, sometimes called “the Highway that Goes to Sea”, follows a trail originally blazed in 1912 by Henry Flagler. He extended his Florida East Coast Railroad from Miami to Key WestThese bridges, currently open to vehicular traffic only, are achievements in engineering. They are the survivors of Henry Flagler’s Florida East Coast Railway, intended to connect the Keys to the mainland. Construction began in 1905 and finished in 1912. However, Flagler’s rail project was unfortunately short-lived. A 1935 hurricane destroyed more than 30 miles of track. Restoration took years. In the process, workers converted the rails to highways. The Knight’s Key Bridge — now called the Seven Mile Bridge for the nearly 7 miles (11.2 kilometers) of water it spans — is breathtaking to traverse.
The construction of the highway began in late 1930s. It was an incredible engineering feat, with 113 miles of roadway and 42 overseas bridges, leapfrogging form key to key in a series of giant arches of concrete and steel. It was completed in 1938 and in 1982.
37 bridges were replaced with wider, heavier spans, including the well-known Seven Mile Bridge at Marathon. Its foundation utilizes some of the original spans as well as the coral bedrock of individual keys and specially constructed columns. Many take this highway-bridge combo to cross between mainland Florida and vacation hot spot the Florida Keys. They experience the feeling of driving across the ocean for miles and miles.

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Wearing Your Seat Belt on an Airplane is Very Important, and Here’s Why

seat belts

Seat Belts and Air Travel. Turbulence is air movement that normally cannot be seen and often occurs unexpectedly. It can be created by many different conditions. This includes atmospheric pressure, jet streams, air around mountains, cold or warm weather fronts or thunderstorms. Turbulence can even occur when the sky appears to be clear.

While turbulence is normal and happens often, it can be dangerous. Its bumpy ride can cause passengers who are not wearing their seat belts to be thrown from their seats without warning. But, by following the guidelines suggested on this site, you can help keep yourself and your loved ones safe when traveling by air.

To keep you and your family as safe as possible during flight, FAA regulations require passengers to be seated with their seat belts fastened:

  • When the airplane leaves the gate and as it climbs after take-off.
  • During landing and taxi.
  • Whenever the seat belt sign is illuminated during flight.

Why is it important to follow these safety regulations? Consider this:

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Who Invented the Seat Belt

seat belt

Who Invented the Seat Belt.
Seat belts were invented by English engineer George Cayley in the mid-19th century, though Edward J. Claghorn of New York, was granted the first patent (U.S. Patent 312,085, on February 10, 1885 for a safety belt). Claghorn was granted United States Patent #312,085 for a Safety-Belt for tourists, painters, firemen, etc. who are being raised or lowered, described in the patent as “designed to be applied to the person, and provided with hooks and other attachments for securing the person to a fixed object.”

In 1946, Dr. C. Hunter Shelden had opened a neurological practice at Huntington Memorial Hospital in Pasadena, California. In the early 1950s, Dr. Shelden had made a major contribution to the automotive industry with his idea of retractable seat belts. This came about greatly in part from the high number of head injuries coming through the emergency rooms. He investigated the early seat belts whose primitive designs were implicated in these injuries and deaths. His findings were published in the November 5, 1955 Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) in which he proposed not only the retractable seat belt, but also recessed steering wheels, reinforced roofs, roll bars, door locks and passive restraints such as the air bag. Subsequently, in 1959, Congress passed legislation requiring all automobiles to comply with certain safety standards.

American car manufacturers Nash (in 1949) and Ford (in 1955) offered seat belts as options, while Swedish Saab first introduced seat belts as standard in 1958. After the Saab GT 750 was introduced at the New York Motor Show in 1958 with safety belts fitted as standard, the practice became commonplace.

Glenn Sheren of Mason, Michigan submitted a patent application on March 31, 1955 for an automotive seat belt and was awarded US Patent 2,855,215 in 1958. This was a continuation of an earlier patent application that Mr. Sheren had filed on September 22, 1952.

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Scenic Winter Routes

scenic winter routes

Winter is a great time to visit the park, but the weather is often unpredictable. Snow can fall suddenly at any time of year on park roads in higher elevations, accumulate rapidly, and linger for days or weeks. Be prepared with warm clothing, a sleeping bag, water, and emergency food in case you need to wait for the road to be plowed.

If you’re planning a trip in snowy weather, be prepared for winter road conditions. Tire chains are often required in these parks, and chain advisories can be in effect for days after a storm. You may need to bring chains for your vehicle, even if you have four-wheel or all-wheel drive. Chains are also available for rent in nearby towns. Check the alerts and conditions page for the latest road conditions.

Driving from Sequoia’s Ash Mountain Entrance to Lodgepole

This route is spectacular but can be unnerving in winter if you’re not used to driving in snow. Chains are often required, sometimes even in fall or early summer. The upper part of this drive may close for snow removal at any time. Allow 1.5 hours one-way, plus your time to stop at viewpoints. Features along the way include:

Historic Entrance Sign
Just a mile past the Foothills Entrance Station, you will find the historic Sequoia National Park Sign installed by the Civilian Conservation Corps in 1935.

The Kaweah River to Hospital Rock
Pullouts along this stretch of road offer views up and down the Kaweah Canyon as the highway winds up alongside the river’s rapids.

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Historic Route 66

route 66 cadillacs

Historic Route 66

U.S. Highway 66 — popularly known as Route 66 — holds a special place in American consciousness. Its name commonly evokes images of simpler times, mom-and-pop businesses, and the icons of a mobile nation on the road. Travelers on Highway 66 today can easily experience this past, as many of the motels, gas stations, cafés, parks, trading posts, bridges, and roadbeds remain along the thoroughfare. These historic resources are reminders of our past and evidence of the origins of our current automobile-influenced society.

Route 66 embodies a complex, rich history that goes well beyond any chronicle of the road itself. An artery of transportation, an agent of social transformation, and a remnant of America’s past, it stretches 2,400 miles across two-thirds of the continent. The highway winds from the shores of Lake Michigan across the agricultural fields of Illinois, to the rolling hills of the Missouri Ozarks, through the mining towns of Kansas, across Oklahoma where the woodlands of the East meet the open plains of the West, to the open ranch lands of Texas, the enchanted mesa lands of New Mexico and Arizona, to the Mojave Desert, and finally to the “land of milk and honey” – the metropolis of Los Angeles and the shores of the Pacific Ocean.

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RV Camping at Zion

Zion National Park has three campgrounds. South and Watchman Campgrounds are in Zion Canyon. The Lava Point Campground is about a 1-hour drive from Zion Canyon on the Kolob Terrace Road. There are no campgrounds in Kolob Canyons. Camping is permitted in designated campsites, but not in pullouts or parking lots. Camping is popular; all campgrounds are often full by noon on weekdays and in the morning on weekends. From mid-March through November the campgrounds are full almost every night. Reservations at Watchman Campground (see below) are recommended if you would like to guarantee a camping spot. If you are unable to make a reservation, the earlier in the day you arrive, the better your chance of getting a campsite.

Several private campgrounds are a short drive from the park. Please check the following links for more information.
Zion Canyon Visitors Bureau
East Zion Tourism Council
St. George Area Visitor Bureau
Kane County, Utah (including Kanab)


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Seat Belt Laws

seat belt shoulder pad

Seat belt laws are divided into two categories: primary and secondary. Primary seat belt laws allow law enforcement officers to ticket a driver or passenger for not wearing a seat belt, without any other traffic offense taking place. Secondary seat belt laws state that law enforcement officers may issue a ticket for not wearing a seat belt only when there is another citable traffic infraction.

  • 34 states, the District of Columbia, American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands have primary seat belt laws for front seat occupants. Of these:
    • 18 states, D.C. and 2 territories include rear seats as primary enforcement.
    • 4 states include rear seats as secondary enforcement.
    • 12 states and the Virgin Islands do not include rear seats.
  • 15 states have secondary laws for adult front seat occupants. Of these:
    • 6 states also have secondary laws for rear seats.
    • 9 states do not include rear seats.
  • New Hampshire has enacted neither a primary nor a secondary seat belt law for adults, although the state does have a primary child passenger safety law that covers all drivers and passengers under 18.
Law Chart

Specific laws vary greatly from state to state, depending on the age of the rider and in what seat he or she is sitting. This page covers seat belt laws for adults and young adults only. For requirements for infants, toddlers, and children, see GHSA’s Child Passenger Safety Laws chart.

A PDF chart of state seat belt laws is available for download here.



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